Beam, Michael A., Myiah J. Hutchens, and Jay D. Hmielowski. 2018. ‘Facebook News and (de)Polarization: Reinforcing Spirals in the 2016 US Election’, Information, Communication & Society, 21.7: 940–58

Bessi, A. 2016. ‘Personality traits and echo chambers on Faceook.’ Computers in Human Behavior 65: 319-324. As of 11 July 2018:

Bode, Leticia, and Emily K. Vraga. 2015. ‘In Related News, That Was Wrong: The Correction of Misinformation Through Related Stories Functionality in Social Media’, Journal of Communication, 65.4: 619–38

Bode, Leticia, and Emily K. Vraga. 2018. ‘See Something, Say Something: Correction of Global Health Misinformation on Social Media’, Health Communication, 33.9: 1131–40

Bossetta, Michael. 2018. ‘The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election’, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95.2: 471–96

Bozdag, Engin. 2013. ‘Bias in algorithmic filtering and personalization.’ Ethics and Information Technology 15(3): 209-227

Burkhardt, Joanna M. 2017. ‘Combating Fake News in the Digital Age’, Library Technology Reports, 53.8: 1–33

Cadwalladr, Carole  and Emma Graham-Harrison. 2018. The Cambridge Analytica Files Cambridge Analytica Revealed: 50 million Facebook profiles harvested for Cambridge Analytica in major data breach. As of 10 August 2018:

Cohen, Manny. 2017. ‘Fake News and Manipulated Data, the New GDPR, and the Future of Information’, Business Information Review, 34.2: 81–85

Colman, Andrew. 2003. Oxford Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-19-280632-7.

D’Onfro, Jillian. 2018. Here are all the businesses owned by Google’s parent company and how they contribute to revenue. As of 10 August 2018:

Directorate-General of Communications Networks, Content, and Technology (DG CONNECT), High-Level Expert Group (HLEG). 2018. “A Multi-Dimensional Approach to Disinformation.”

Drexl, Josef. 2017. Economic Efficiency versus Democracy: On the Potential Role of Competition Policy in Regulating Digital Markets in Times of Post-Truth Politics (December 6, 2016). Forthcoming, Damien Gerard and Ioannis Lianos (eds.), Competition Policy: Between Equity and Efficiency, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017; Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 16-16. Available at SSRN:

Dutton, William H. & Bianca Reisdorf, Elizabeth Dubois & Grant Blank. 2017. ‘Social Shaping of the Politics of Internet Search and Networking: Moving Beyond Filter Bubbles, Echo Chambers, and Fake News.’ Quello Center Working Paper No. 2944119 (March): 1-26. As of 11 July 2018:

Edwards, Lilian & Veale, Michael. 2017. ‘Slave to the Algorithm? Why a ‘Right to an Explanation’ Is Probably Not the Remedy You Are Looking For.’ Duke Law & Technology Review 16(1) (May): 18-84. As of 9 July 2018:

Eslami, Motahhare, Sneha R. Krishna Kumaran, Christian Sandvig, and Karrie Karahalios. 2018. ‘Communicating Algorithmic Process in Online Behavioral Advertising.’ In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 432:1–432:13. CHI ’18. New York, NY, USA: ACM,

European Regulators Group for Audiovisual Media Services (ERGA). 2015. “ERGA Report on the Protection of Minors in a Converged Environment.”

Facebook. 2017. Facebook: Annual report 2017. As of 10 August 2018:

Fallows, Deborah. 2005. ‘Search Engine Users.’ Pew Internet & American Life Project. As of 14 August 2018:

Flaxman, Seth, Sharad Goel, and Justin M. Rao. 2016. ‘Filter Bubbles, Echo Chambers, and Online News Consumption’, Public Opinion Quarterly, 80.S1: 298–320

Fletcher, Richard and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. 2017. ‘Are people incidentally exposed to news on social media? A comparative analysis.’ Oxford: University of Oxford. DOI:

Fletcher, Richard and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. 2018a . ‘Generalised scepticism: how people navigate news on social media.’ Information, Communication & Society. DOI:

Fletcher, Richard, Alessio Cornia, Lucas Graves, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. 2018b. ‘Measuring the Reach of “Fake News” and Online Disinformation in Europe | Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism’ As of 18 July 2018:

Follows, Tracey. 2016. ‘The Future of News’, Campaign: 36–36

Frau-Meigs, Divina, Irma Velez, Julieta Flores Michel. 2017. Public Policies in Media and Information Literacy in Europe: Cross-Country Comparisons. Routledge

Frau-Meigs, Divina, Bérangère Blondeau. 2018. DIY Education aux médias et à l’information. As of 10 August 2018:

Frenkel, Sheera. 2018. Facebook Starts Paying a Price for Scandals. As of 10 August 2018:

Friedman, Batya, and Helen Nissenbaum. 1996. ‘Bias in Computer Systems’, ACM Trans. Inf. Syst., 14.3: 330–347

Gil de Zúñiga, Homero, Brian Weeks, and Alberto Ardèvol-Abreu. 2017. ‘Effects of the News-Finds-Me Perception in Communication: Social Media Use Implications for News Seeking and Learning About Politics.’ Journal of Computer-Mediated Communications. DOI:

Gillmor, Dan. 2009. “Principles for a New Media Literacy.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1323889. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Griffin, Andrew. 2018. ‘Facebook finally rolls out ‘Dislike’ button – sort of.’ As of 10 August 2018.

Hamilton, K., K. Karahalios, C. Sandvig, M. Eslami. 2014. A path to understanding the effects of algorithm awareness. In CHI Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (alt.CHI), 631-642. New York, NY: ACM

Hindman, Matthew. 2018. How Cambridge Analytica’s Facebook targeting model really worked – according to the person who built it. As of 10 August 2018:

Hobbs, Renee. 2010. Digital and Media Literacy: A Plan of Action. A White Paper on the Digital and Media Literacy Recommendations of the Knight Commission on the Information Needs of Communities in a Democracy. Washington, D.C.: Aspen Institute


Gillespie, Tarleton. 2014. ‘The Relevance of Algorithms’, in Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society, ed. by Tarleton Gillespie, Pablo J Boczkowski, and Kirsten A. Foot (The MIT Press). As of 12 July 2018:

Guess, Andrew, and Brendan Nyhan. 2018. ‘Selective Exposure to Misinformation: Evidence from the Consumption of Fake News during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Campaign’: 49

Heaven, Douglas. 2018. ‘Rise of the Nobodies’, New Scientist, 237.3169: 24–25

House of Commons, Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee. 2018. Disinformation and ‘Fake News’: Interim Report

Iwanska, Karolina, and Anna Obem. 2018. ‘Digital Propaganda or “Normal” Political Polarization?’, Transitions Online: 11–11

Jang, S. Mo, and Joon K. Kim. 2018. ‘Third Person Effects of Fake News: Fake News Regulation and Media Literacy Interventions’, Computers in Human Behavior, 80: 295–302

Janna, Anderson, and Lee Rainie. 2017. ‘The Future of Truth and Misinformation Online’, Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. As of 11 July 2018:

Johnson, I. & C. McMahon, J. Schöning, B. Hecht. 2017. ‘The Effect of Population and “Structural” Biases on Social Media-based Algorithms – A Case Study in Geolocation Inference Across the Urban-Rural Spectrum.’ CHI Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (May): 1167-1178

Kahneman, Daniel, Amos Tversky, and Paul Slovic, (eds.) 1982. Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics & Biases. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28414-7

Kalogeropoulos, Antonis, Samuel Negredo, Ike Picone, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen. 2017. Who Shares and Comments on News?: A Cross-National Comparative Analysis of Online and Social Media Participation. Social Media + Society, 3(4). DOI:

Kennedy, Shirley Duglin. 2017. ‘All the News That’s (Un)Fit’, Information Today, 34.1: 8–8

Kroll, Joshua, Joanna Huey, Solon Barocas, Edward Felten, Joel Reidenberg, and others. 2017. ‘Accountable Algorithms’, University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 165.3: 633

Lazer, D., M. Baum, N. Grinberg, L. Friedland, K. Jospeh, W. Hobbs, C. Mattsson. 2017. ‘Combating fake news: An agenda for research and action.’ Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, May 2017. As of 13 July 2018:

Levi, Lili. 2018. “Real ‘Fake News’ and Fake ‘Fake News.’” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3097200. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Lustig, C., K. Pine, B. Nardi, L. Irani, M. Kyung Lee, D. Nafus, C. Sandvig. 2016. ‘Algorithmic authority: The ethics, politics, and economics of algorithms that interpret, decide, and manage — Arizona State University.’ In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1057-1062. New York, NY: ACM

Metaxa-Kakavouli, D. & N. Torres-Echeverry. 2017. Google’s Role in Spreading Fake News and Misinformation (October 31, 2017). Available as of 13 July 2018:

Müller, Karsten, and Carlo Schwarz. 2018. “Making America Hate Again? Twitter and Hate Crime Under Trump.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3149103. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Nagulendra, Sayooran, and Julita Vassileva. 2014. ‘Understanding and Controlling the Filter Bubble Through Interactive Visualization: A User Study’, in Proceedings of the 25th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Social Media, HT ’14 (New York, NY, USA: ACM), pp. 107–115

Najmabadi, Shannon. 2017. ‘How Can Students Be Taught to Detect Fake News?’, Chronicle of Higher Education, 63.18: A22–A22

Newton, Casey. 2018. Facebook’s forecast for the future looks suddenly bleak: What a difference a quarter makes. As of 10 August 2018:

Noble, Safiya U. 2017. ‘Google and the Misinformed Public’, Chronicle of Higher Education, 63.20: B11–B11

Ochigame, Rodrigo, and James Holston. 2016. ‘FILTERING DISSENT’, New Left Review: 85–108

Ovadya, A. V. I. V. 2018. ‘What’s Worse Than Fake News? The Distortion Of Reality Itself’, NPQ: New Perspectives Quarterly, 35.2: 43–45

Osoba, Osonde A. and William Welser IV. 2017. ‘An Intelligence in Our Image.’ Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. As of 15 August 2018:

Pennycook, G. & Rand, D. G. 2017. The Implied Truth Effect: Attaching Warnings to a Subset of Fake News Stories Increases Perceived Accuracy of Stories Without Warnings. Working paper, 8 December 2017.

Plous, Scott. 1993. The Psychology of Judgment and Decision Making, p. 233

Quattrociocchi, Walter, Antonio Scala, and Cass R. Sunstein. 2016. Echo Chambers on Facebook (Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network). As of 19 July 2018:

Rader, E. & R. Gray. 2015. ‘Understanding User Beliefs About Algorithmic Curation in the Facebook News Feed.’ CHI Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (April): 173-182. As of 16 July 2018:

Resnick, Paul, R. Kelly Garrett, Travis Kriplean, Sean A. Munson, and Natalie Jomini Stroud. 2013. ‘Bursting Your (Filter) Bubble: Strategies for Promoting Diverse Exposure’, in Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work Companion, CSCW ’13 (New York, NY, USA: ACM), pp. 95–100

Rizoiu, Marian-Andrei, Timothy Graham, Rui Zhang, Yifei Zhang, Robert Ackland, and others. 2018. ‘#DebateNight: The Role and Influence of Socialbots on Twitter During the 1st 2016 U.S. Presidential Debate – Semantic Scholar’, abs/1802.09808

Rogers, Jacob. 2017. ‘Wikipedia and Intermediary Immunity: Supporting Sturdy Crowd Systems for Producing Reliable Information.’ The Yale Law Journal, 9 October 2017. As of 13 July 2018:

Rosenberg, Matthew, Nicholas Confessore and Carole Cadwalladr. 2018. How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions. As of 10 August 2018:  

Schulz, Anna Gonzalez & David. [n.d.]. ‘Helping Truth with Its Boots: Accreditation as an Antidote to Fake News’. As of 11 July 2018:

Self, Will. 2016. ‘Lines of Dissent’, New Statesman, 145.5342: 38–38

Shao, Chengcheng, Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia, Onur Varol, Kaicheng Yang, Alessandro Flammini, and others. 2017. ‘The Spread of Low-Credibility Content by Social Bots’, ArXiv:1707.07592 [Physics]. As of 12 July 2018:

Shao, Chengcheng, Pik-Mai Hui, Lei Wang, Xinwen Jiang, Alessandro Flammini, and others. 2018. ‘Anatomy of an Online Misinformation Network’, PLoS ONE, 13.4: 1–23

Simon, Herbert. 1957. ‘A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice’, in Models of Man, Social and Rational: Mathematical Essays on Rational Human Behavior in a Social Setting. New York: Wiley.

Streel, Alexandre de, and Anne-Lise Sibony. 2017. “Towards Smarter Consumer Protection Rules for the Digital Society.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 3063192. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Syed, Nabiha. [n.d.]. ‘Real Talk About Fake News: Towards a Better Theory for Platform Governance’. As of 12 July 2018:

Tanaka, Yuko, Yasuaki Sakamoto, and Toshihiko Matsuka. 2012. “Toward a Social-Technological System That Inactivates False Rumors Through the Critical Thinking of Crowds.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2150299. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network.

Tschiatschek, Sebastian, Adish Singla, Manuel Gomez Rodriguez, Arpit Merchant, and Andreas Krause. 2017. ‘Fake News Detection in Social Networks via Crowd Signals’, ArXiv:1711.09025 [Cs]. As of 12 July 2018:

Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. 1981. ‘The Framing of decisions and the psychology of choice’. Science. 211 (4481): 453–58. doi:10.1126/science.7455683.

Usher-Layser, Nikki. 2016. ‘NEWSFEED: FACEBOOK, FILTERING AND NEWS CONSUMPTION. (Cover Story)’, Phi Kappa Phi Forum, 96.3: 18–21

Valeriani, Augusto and Cristian Vaccari. 2016. ‘Accidental exposure to politics on social media as online participation equalizer in Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom.’ New Media and Society. DOI:

Varol, Onur, Emilio Ferrara, Clayton A. Davis, Filippo Menczer, and Alessandro Flammini. 2017. ‘Online Human-Bot Interactions: Detection, Estimation, and Characterization’, ArXiv:1703.03107 [Cs]. As of 19 July 2018:

Veale, Michael, Max Van Kleek, and Reuben Binns. 2018. ‘Fairness and Accountability Design Needs for Algorithmic Support in High-Stakes Public Sector Decision-Making.’ In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 440:1–440:14. CHI ’18. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2018.

Verstraete, Mark & Derek E. Bambauer, Jane R. Bambauer. 2017. ‘Identifying and Countering Fake News.’ Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 17-15 (August). As of 11 July 2018:

Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral. 2018. ‘The Spread of True and False News Online’, Science, 359.6380: 1146–51

Wardle, C. & H. Derakhshan. 2017. Information Disorder: Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policymaking. Council of Europe report DGI(2017)09. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. As of 10 July 2018:

Weeks, Brian E. 2015. ‘Emotions, Partisanship, and Misperceptions: How Anger and Anxiety Moderate the Effect of Partisan Bias on Susceptibility to Political Misinformation.’ Journal of Communication 65: 699-719. As of 10 July 2018:

Woodruff, Allison, Sarah E. Fox, Steven Rousso-Schindler, and Jeffrey Warshaw. 2018. ‘A Qualitative Exploration of Perceptions of Algorithmic Fairness.’ In Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 656:1–656:14. CHI ’18. New York, NY, USA: ACM.

Willson, Michele. 2017. ‘Algorithms (and the) Everyday’, Information, Communication & Society, 20.1: 137–50

Zubiaga, Arkaitz, Maria Liakata, Rob Procter, Geraldine Wong Sak Hoi, and Peter Tolmie. 2016. ‘Analysing How People Orient to and Spread Rumours in Social Media by Looking at Conversational Threads’, 11.3